Resources for:

Trade & Development

June 2010

Geneva Reporter

QUNO Geneva's newsletter for February to June 2010. Featured stories:

  • Armed Violence & the Millennium Development Goals
  • UPOV, Intellectual Property & Food
  • Non Proliferation Treaty Review Conference Concludes on Positive Note
  • New UN Ruling on Conscientious Objection to Military Service
  • Update from QUNO New York
  • Vacancy Announcement: QUNO Geneva Director

Author: 

  • QUNO

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January 2010

Geneva Reporter

QUNO Geneva's newsletter for November to January 2010. Featured stories:

  • Conscientious Objection to Military Service
  • Securing the Millennium Development Goals
  • A Letter from QUNO New York
  • Reasons to be Hopeful? Prospects for the Disarmament Agenda 2010
  • Women in Prison
  • QUNO Seeks New Programme Assistants
  • From Trade Justice to Climate Justice? Reflections Around the WTO’s 2009 Ministerial Conference
  • Quaker United Nations Summer School
  • Quakers at the Copenhagen Climate Conference
  • Panel Discussion on Intellectual Property and Food

Author: 

  • QUNO

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October 2009

Geneva Reporter

QUNO Geneva's newsletter for August to October 2009. Featured stories:

  • Detention and Prisoners at the UN Human Rights Council
  • Climate Migrants
  • Churches Called to Uphold Conscientious Objection to Military Service
  • Secretary General’s Report on Armed Violence and Development Breaks New Ground

Author: 

  • QUNO

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December 2008

The Protection of Geographical Indications and the Doha Round: Strategic and Policy Considerations for Africa

Aims to inform the position of the African Group in the WTO Geographical Indication (GI) negotiations. In particular it aims to generate objective evidence regarding issues such as the availability of legal means to protect GIs in African countries, the costs and benefits of GI protection, African products that could benefit from GI protection, and technical assistance needs relating to GI protection.

Author: 

  • Sisule F. Musungu

Countries / Regions: 

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October 2008

Geneva Reporter

QUNO Geneva's newsletter from August to October 2008. Featured articles:

  • Conscientious Objection to Military Service
  • Geneva Declaration Summit
  • Transfer of Technology and Developing countries
  • CD Impasse Continues - 12 Years and Counting (Out?)
  • Staff News

Author: 

  • QUNO

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June 2008

Ensuring Temporariness: Mechanisms to Incentivise Return Migration in the Context of GATS Mode 4 and Least Developed Country Interests

During the Doha negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO), least developed countries (LDCs) have expressed a strong interest in increasing possibilities for their nationals to work as service providers in other countries. In the WTO, this is discussed in the context of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) under the heading known as Mode 4 – the presence of natural persons.

Trade negotiators and politicians from the US and EU argue that GATS Mode 4 is unworkable, particularly for semi-skilled and unskilled service providers, if source countries cannot guarantee the return (and hence the ‘temporariness’) of their service providers working abroad.

This paper examines different countries’ experiences and finds evidence that many migrant workers do desire to return to their home countries, and conditions and opportunities to help them to do so are a major factor in encouraging their return.

Author: 

  • Uri Friedman
  • David Zafar Ahmed

Countries / Regions: 

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October 2007

Understanding GATS Mode 4: Return Migration of Temporary Workers

This is an executive summary of QUNO's study entitled “Ensuring Temporariness: Bilateral Mechanisms to Incentivise Return Migration in the context of GATS Mode 4 and Least Developed Country Interests.”

It refers to negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO), on Mode 4 of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), the presence of natural persons. It concludes, from examination of different countries’ experiences, that many migrant workers wish to return to their home countries, and conditions and opportunities to help them to do so are a major factor in encouraging their return.

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May 2007

World Trade Organization Accession Agreements: Intellectual Property Issues

This paper addresses intellectual property issues that arise in the context of countries' WTO accession processes, with a view to assisting prospective WTO Members.

Author: 

  • Frederick M. Abbott
  • Carlos M. Correa

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January 2007

A Conceptual Framework for Priority Identification and Delivery of IP Technical Assistance for LDCs

In 2005 the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) extended the transition period for Least-developed countries (LDCs) to implement the TRIPS Agreement, until 2013. This paper draws attention to technical assistance issues arising out of the extension decision, and suggests ideas on how to think about what assistance may be required, and how priority assessments may be done.

Author: 

  • Sisule F. Musungu

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January 2005

Rethinking Innovation, Development and Intellectual Property in the UN: WIPO and Beyond

This paper critically analyses the increasing level of international intellectual property standards, the lack of economic analysis of such higher standards, the undemocratic and ideological international standard-setting processes, and the lack of coordination within and among developing countries on intellectual property matters. It argues that the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) should not be the only UN agency to deal with intellectual property.

To meet the challenges the paper analyses, it suggests implementing a development agenda for WIPO and taking deliberate steps to position other UN agencies to provide substantive contributions to global policies on innovation, development and intellectual property.

Author: 

  • Sisule F. Musungu

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January 2004

Patents, Trade and Food

This is a beginners' introduction about patents and other forms of intellectual property and how they can affect agriculture and food security. It refers to key actors working in this field and suggests ways that individuals can get involved.

Although published in 2004, its key points are valid today.

Author: 

  • QIAP

Languages: 

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January 2004

Patents, Trade and Development

This beginners' introduction to rules on patents, copyright and other forms of intellectual property describes how they affect distribution of wealth and power.  It describes what patents are, and how intellectual property rules underpin the control of, access to and use of technology, knowledge, medicines, seeds, biodiversity, scientific research and much more.

It suggests ways concerned individuals can get involved and points to other key actors working on these topics.

Although published in 2004, its key points are valid today.

Author: 

  • QIAP

Languages: 

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January 2004

Patents, Trade and Health

This non-specialist briefing paper describes how global rules on trade and patents can make medicines more expensive. It also describes how countries have sought to address this problem.

It suggests ways concerned individuals can get involved and points to other key actors working on these topics.

Author: 

  • QIAP

Languages: 

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January 2004

Bilateral Agreements and a TRIPS-plus World: The Chile-USA Free Trade Agreement

Focuses on the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Chile and the United States of America (U.S.). The paper deals with broad aspects of trade, including general provisions establishing a free trade zone between the two countries, settlement of disputes, market access, services, investment, telecommunications and intellectual property (IP).

Its purpose is to contribute to a better understanding of TRIPs-plus issues, the specific contents of the FTA and the lessons that could be drawn from the negotiations between the most powerful and technologically advanced country in the world – with clear stakes in IPRs – and a small and dynamic developing country that has one of the most open and liberal economies of the Americas.

Author: 

  • Pedro Roffe

Languages: 

Countries / Regions: 

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December 2003

Multilateral Agreements and a TRIPS-plus World: The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Discusses TRIPs-plus standards at the multilateral level particularly in negotiations at the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO).

The World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) substantially changed the international intellectual property regime by introducing the principle of minimum intellectual property standards. This paper discusses WIPO's structure, decision making and mandate in relation to UN development goals, and its role in harmonising patent law standards. It also considers the TRIPs-plus concept and provides policy recommendations for a development orientated international intellectual property system.

This is TRIPs issues paper number 3, published by QUNO Geneva and Quaker International Affairs Programme (QIAP), Ottawa.

Author: 

  • Sisule F. Musungu
  • Graham Dutfield

Languages: 

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October 2003

Special and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries in TRIPS

Analyses the special and differential treatment provisions in the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPs) Agreement, assesses their implementation in support of development, and makes 10 recommendations for change.

These questions arise as differential and more favourable treatment of developing countries has been a fundamental principle of the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

This is TRIPs Issues Paper number 2, published by QUNO, Geneva and the Quaker International Affairs Programme (QIAP), Ottawa

Author: 

  • Constantine Michalopoulos

Languages: 

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August 2003

Regional & Bilateral Agreements and a TRIPS-plus world: The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)

Provides an overview, based on intellectual property rights negotiations in the Americas, of some of the implications of regional and bilateral Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPs) plus agreements for the current minimum standards under TRIPs. It discusses the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA) in relation to TRIPs, and argues that the push towards ever-stronger IPRs threatens to undermine the balance achieved in many national laws and the capacity of developing countries to use flexibilities existing at the international level to achieve developmental and public policy goals.

This is TRIPs Issues Paper number 1, published by QUNO, Geneva and the Quaker International Affairs Programme (QIAP), Ottawa.

Author: 

  • David Vivas-Eugui

Languages: 

Countries / Regions: 

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