This is a joint publication by QUNO and the Small Arms Survey. It summarizes the findings of a multi-year project that included research in Brazil, Colombia, South Africa, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. The paper aimed to inform the debates at the 2006 Review Conference (reviewing implementation of the 2001 UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects). Most international debates focus on the supply-related dimensions of small arms problems, which include, for instance, regulating arms brokers, establishing controls on arms transfers etc. This paper brings a necessary, complementary view, to broaden the international community’s understanding of those demand factors that underpin and drive small arms dynamics. The paper provides some practical suggestions about how demand issues may be taken up in the future.